Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton

From Academic Kids

Missing image
3rd_Duke_of_Grafton.jpg
The Duke of Grafton

The Duke of Grafton

Predecessor:
The Earl of Chatham
Prime Minister
17681770
Successor:
Lord North
Term: Oct 14 176828 January 1770
Date of Birth: 28 September 1735
Date of Death: Euston Hall, Suffolk
Place of Death: Grosvenor Square, London
Political Party: Whig

Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton (October 1, 1735 - March 14, 1811), was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He was one of a handful of dukes that served as Prime Minister.

He was a son of a senior Augustus FitzRoy and Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby who served as a colonial Governor of New York. The younger Augustus was grandson to Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton and Lady Henrietta Somerset, great-grandson to both Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton and Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester. Augustus was notably a fourth-generation descedant of Charles II of England and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland. His younger brother was Charles FitzRoy, 1st Baron Southampton.

Augustus was educated at the Westminster School, made the Grand Tour and obtained a degree at Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 1756, FitzRoy married the Honourable Anne Liddell, daughter of Henry Liddell, 1st Baron Ravensworth. Later that year, FitzRoy entered Parliament as MP for Boroughbridge, a pocket borough; several months later, he switched constituencies to Bury St. Edmunds, which was controlled by his family. However, one year later, his grandfather died, and he inherited a peerage, Duke of Grafton, elevating him to the House of Lords.

He first became known in politics as an opponent of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, a favourite of King George III. Grafton allied with the Duke of Newcastle against Lord Bute, whose term as Prime Minister was short-lived. In 1765, Grafton was appointed a Privy Counsellor, then following discussions with William Pitt the Elder, he was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department in Lord Rockingham's first government. However, he retired the following year, and Pitt (by then created Earl of Chatham) formed a ministry in which Grafton was First Lord of the Treasury but not Prime Minister.

Chatham's illness at the end of 1767 resulted in Grafton becoming the government's effective leader (he is credited with entering the office of Prime Minister in 1768), but political differences and the attacks of "Junius" led to his resignation in January 1770. He became Lord Privy Seal in Lord North's ministry (1771) but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the second Rockingham ministry of 1782 he was again Lord Privy Seal. In later years he was a prominent Unitarian.

Besides his successor, the 4th Duke (1760–1844) and numerous other children, Grafton was the father of General Lord Charles Fitzroy (1764–1829), whose sons Sir Charles FitzRoy (1798–1858), governor of New South Wales, and Robert Fitzroy, the hydrographer, were notable for their achievements.

Grafton County, New Hampshire in the United States is named in his honour.

The Duke of Grafton's Government

Missing image
Augustus-FitzRoy-arms.PNG
Arms of Augustus FitzRoy

External links


Preceded by:
The Earl of Sandwich
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
1765–1766
Succeeded by:
Henry Seymour Conway

Template:Succession box one to two

Preceded by:
The Earl of Chatham
Prime Minister
1768–1770
Succeeded by:
Lord North
Preceded by:
The Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire
Lord Privy Seal
1771–1775
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Dartmouth
Preceded by:
The Earl of Dartmouth
Lord Privy Seal
1782–1783
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Carlisle

Template:End box

Preceded by:
Charles FitzRoy
Duke of Grafton Succeeded by:
George FitzRoy

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools