Advertisement

Even and odd functions

From Academic Kids

In mathematics, even functions and odd functions are functions which satisfy particular symmetry relations, with respect to taking additive inverses. They are important in many areas of mathematical analysis, especially the theory of power series and Fourier series.

Contents

Even functions

Let f(x) be a real-valued function of a real variable. Then f is even if the following equation holds for all real x:

f(−x) = f(x)

Geometrically, an even function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis, meaning that its graph remains unchanged after reflection about the y-axis.

The designation even is due to the fact that the Taylor series of an even function includes only even powers.

Examples of even functions are x2, x4, cos(x), and cosh(x).

Odd functions

Again, let f(x) be a real-valued function of a real variable. Then f is odd if the following equation holds for all real x:

f(−x) = −f(x)

Geometrically, an odd function is symmetric with respect to the origin, meaning that its graph remains unchanged after rotation of 180 degrees about the origin.

The designation odd is due to the fact that the Taylor series of an odd function includes only odd powers.

Examples of odd functions are x, x3, sin(x), and sinh(x).

Some facts

Basic properties

  • The only function which is both even and odd is the constant function which is identically zero (i.e., f(x) = 0 for all x).
  • In general, the sum of an even and odd function is neither even nor odd; e.g. x + x2.
  • The sum of 2 even functions is even, and any constant multiple of an even function is even.
  • The sum of 2 odd functions is odd, and any constant multiple of an odd function is odd.
  • The product of 2 even functions is an even function.
  • The product of 2 odd functions is again an even function.
  • The product of an even function and an odd function is an odd function.
  • The derivative of an even function is odd.
  • The derivative of an odd function is even.

Series

  • The Taylor series of an even function includes only even powers.
  • The Taylor series of an odd function includes only odd powers.
  • The Fourier series of a periodic even function includes only cosine terms.
  • The Fourier series of a periodic odd function includes only sine terms.

Algebraic structure

  • Any linear combination of even functions is even, and the even functions form a vector space over the reals. Similarly, any linear combination of odd functions is odd, and the odd functions also form a vector space over the reals. In fact, the vector space of all real-valued functions is the direct sum of the subspaces of even and odd functions. In other words, every function can be written uniquely as the sum of an even function and an odd function:
<math>f(x)=\frac{f(x)+f(-x)}{2}\,+\,\frac{f(x)-f(-x)}{2}<math>
  • The even functions form a commutative algebra over the reals. However, the odd functions do not form an algebra over the reals.

See also

de:Gerade und ungerade Funktionen it:Funzioni pari e dispari ja:偶関数と奇関数

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools