Timeline of algorithms
From Academic Kids

The following timeline outlines the development of algorithms since their inception.
Contents 
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Before 1940
 C. 1600 BC  Babylonians develop first algorithms
 C. 300 BC  Euclid's algorithm
 C. 200 BC  the Sieve of Eratosthenes
 263  Gaussian elimination described by Liu Hui
 Between 813 and 833 AlKhawarizmi described an algorithm for solving Linear equations and Quadratic equations. Algorithm derives from his name.
 1614  John Napier develops method for performing calculations using logarithms
 1671  NewtonRaphson method developed by Isaac Newton
 1690  NewtonRaphson method independently developed by Joseph Raphson
 1805  CooleyTukey algorithm known by Carl Friedrich Gauss
 1926  Boruvka's algorithm
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1940s
 1945  Merge sort developed by John von Neumann
 1947  Simplex algorithm developed by George Dantzig
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1950s
 1952  Huffman coding developed by David A. Huffman
 1954  Radix sort computer algorithm developed by Harold H. Seward
 1956  Kruskal's algorithm developed by Joseph Kruskal
 1957  Prim's algorithm developed by Robert Prim
 1957  BellmanFord algorithm developed by R. Bellman and L. R. Ford
 1959  Dijkstra's algorithm developed by Edsger Dijkstra
 1959  Shell sort developed by D. L. Shell
 1959  De Casteljau's algorithm developed by Paul de Casteljau
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1960s
 1962  Quicksort developed by C. A. R. Hoare
 1962  FordFulkerson algorithm developed by L. R. Ford and D. R. Fulkerson
 1962  Bresenham's line algorithm developed by Jack E. Bresenham
 1964  Heapsort developed by J. W. J. Williams
 1965  CooleyTukey algorithm rediscovered by James Cooley and John Tukey
 1965  Levenshtein distance developed by Vladimir Levenshtein
 1965  CockeYoungerKasami (CYK) algorithm independently developed by T. Kasami
 1967  Viterbi algorithm proposed by Andrew Viterbi
 1967  CockeYoungerKasami (CYK) algorithm independently developed by D. H. Younger
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1970s
 1970  KnuthBendix completion algorithm developed by Donald Knuth and P. B. Bendix
 1972  Graham scan developed by Ronald Graham
 1973  RSA encryption algorithm discovered by Clifford Cocks
 1973  Jarvis march algorithm developed by R. A. Jarvis
 1974  Pollard's p1 algorithm developed by John Pollard
 1975  Genetic algorithms popularized by John Holland
 1975  Pollard's rho algorithm developed by John Pollard
 1975  AhoCorasick algorithm developed by Alfred V. Aho and Margaret J. Corasick
 1976  SalaminBrent algorithm independently discovered by Eugene Salamin and Richard Brent
 1976  KnuthMorrisPratt algorithm developed by Donald Knuth and Vaughan Pratt and independently by J. H. Morris
 1977  BoyerMoore string search algorithm for searching the occurrence of a string into another string. One of the most elegant Algorithms in Computer science
 1977  RSA encryption algorithm rediscovered by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman
 1977  LZ77 algorithm developed by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv
 1978  LZ78 algorithm developed from LZ77 by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv
 1978  Bruun's algorithm proposed for powers of two by G. Bruun
 1979  Khaciyan's ellipsoid method developed by Leonid Khaciyan
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1980s
 1981  Quadratic sieve developed by Carl Pomerance
 1983  Simulated annealing developed by S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt and M. P. Vecchi
 1984  LZW algorithm developed from LZ78 by Terry Welch
 1984  Karmarkar's interiorpoint algorithm developed by Narendra Karmarkar
 1985  Simulated annealing independently developed by V. Cerny
 1986  Blum Blum Shub proposed by L. Blum, M. Blum, and M. Shub
 1987  RC4 (cipher) developed by Ron Rivest
 1987  Skipjack (cipher) designed by NSA
 1988  Special number field sieve developed by John Pollard
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1990s
 1990  General number field sieve developed from SNFS by Carl Pomerance, Joe Buhler, Hendrik Lenstra, and Leonard Adleman
 1991  IDEA designed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey
 1991  MD5 developed by Ronald Rivest
 1991  Waitfree synchronization developed by Maurice Herlihy
 1992  DeutschJozsa algorithm proposed by D. Deutsch and R. Jozsa
 1993  Blowfish (cipher) developed by Bruce Schneier
 1994  Shor's algorithm developed by Peter Shor
 1994  BurrowsWheeler transform developed by Michael Burrows and David Wheeler
 1995  SHA1 published by NIST
 1996  Bruun's algorithm generalized to arbitrary even composite sizes by H. Murakami
 1996  Grover's algorithm developed by Lov K. Grover
 1996  RIPEMD160 developed by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, and Bart Preneel
 1998  rsync algorithm developed by Andrew Tridgell
 1999  Yarrow algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, and Niels Ferguson
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2000s
 2000  Rijndael cypher developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen
 2001  AES cypher (based on Rijndael) adopted by NIST
 2001  LZMA compression algorithm
 2002  AKS primality test developed by Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal and Nitin Saxena