-ography

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Informally, an ography, (noun form -graphic) is a field of study or academic discipline ending in the noun combining form -ography. The word ography is therefore a back-formation from the names of these disciplines. Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the combining form -graphy derived from the Greek verb γραφειν (graphein), "to write", plus the abstract noun suffix -ia in Greek, which became Latin, and then French, before becoming English -y. The word ography is thus misleading, as the <o> is actually part of the Greek root that receives the -graphy ending. For example, the bio- root of biography stems from Greek βιος (bio s), life. This is why some of the words listed below do not end in -ography (such as calligraphy).


Some non-study ographies are the following:

Some study-related ographies are the following:

  • Areography, the study of the physical features of the planet Mars
  • Cartography, the study and making of maps
  • Demography, the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics
  • Geography, the study of spatial relationships on the Earth's surface
  • Hagiography, the study of saints
  • Historiography, the study of the study of history
  • Oceanography, the exploration and scientific study of the ocean and its phenomena
  • Orography, the science and study of mountainsde:-graphie
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