Baire space
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 For the set theory concept, see Baire space (set theory).
In mathematics, a Baire space is a topological space which, intuitively speaking, is very large and has "enough" points for certain limit processes. It is named in honour of RenéLouis Baire who introduced the concept.
Contents 
Motivation
In a topological space we can think of closed sets with empty interior as points in the space. Ignoring spaces with isolated points, which are their own interior, a Baire space is "large" in the sense that it cannot be constructed as a countable union of its points. A concrete example is a 2dimensional plane with a countable collection of lines. No matter what lines we choose we cannot cover the space completely with the lines.
Definition
The precise definition of a Baire space has undergone slight changes throughout history, mostly due to prevailing needs and viewpoints. First, we give the usual modern definition, and then we give a historical definition which is closer to the definition originally given by Baire.
Modern definition
A topological space is called a Baire space if the countable union of any collection of closed sets with empty interior has empty interior.
This definition is equivalent to each of the following conditions:
 Every intersection of countable dense open sets is dense.
 The interior of every union of countably many nowhere dense sets is empty.
 Whenever the union of countably many closed subsets of X has an interior point, then one of the closed subsets must have an interior point.
Historical definition
In his original definition, Baire defined a notion of category (unrelated to category theory) as follows
A subset of a topological space X is called
 nowhere dense in X if the interior of its closure is empty
 of first category or meagre in X if it is a union of countably many nowhere dense subsets
 of second category in X if it is not of first category in X
The definition for a Baire space can then be stated as follows: a topological space X is a Baire space if every nonempty open set is of second category in X. This definition is equivalent to the modern definition.
Examples
 In the space R of real numbers with the usual topology, is a Baire space, and so is of second category in itself. The rational numbers are of first category and the irrational numbers are of second category in R.
 The Cantor set is a Baire space, and so is of second category in itself, but it is of first category in the interval [0, 1] with the usual topology.
 Here is an example of a set of second category in R with Lebesgue Measure 0.
 <math>\bigcap_{m=1}^{\infty}\bigcup_{n=1}^{\infty} (r_{n}{1 \over 2^{n+m} }, r_{n}+{1 \over 2^{n+m}})<math>
 where <math> \left\{r_{n}\right\}_{n=1}^{\infty} <math> is a sequence that counts the rational numbers.
 Note that the space of rational numbers with the usual topology inherited from the reals is not a Baire space, since it is the union of countably many closed sets without interior, the singletons.
Baire category theorem
The Baire category theorem gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space. It is an important tool in topology and functional analysis.
 (BCT1) Every nonempty complete metric space is a Baire space. More generally, every topological space which is homeomorphic to an open subset of a complete pseudometric space is a Baire space. In particular, every topologically complete space is a Baire space.
 (BCT2) Every nonempty locally compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space.
BCT1 shows that each of the following is a Baire space:
 The space R of real numbers
 The space of irrational numbers
 The Cantor set
 Every manifold
 Every topological space homeomorphic to a Baire space
Properties
 Every nonempty Baire space is of second category in itself, and every intersection of countably many dense open subsets of X is nonempty, but the converse of neither of these is true, as is shown by the topological disjoint sum of the rationals and the unit interval [0, 1].
 Every open subspace of a Baire space is a Baire space.
 Given a family of continuous functions f_{n}:X→Y with limit f:X→Y. If X is a Baire space then the points where f is not continuous is meagre in X and the set of points where f is continuous is dense in 'X.
See also
References
 Munkres, James, Topology, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2000.
 Baire, RenéLouis (1899), Sur les fonctions de variables réelles, Annali di Mat. Ser. 3 3, 1123.es:espacio de Baire