Education in India

From Academic Kids

Education in India is divided into preprimary, primary, middle (or intermediate), secondary (or high school), and higher levels. Primary school includes children of ages six to eleven, organized into classes one through five. Middle school pupils aged eleven through fourteen are organized into classes six through eight, and high school students ages fourteen through seventeen are enrolled in classes nine through twelve. Higher Education in India includes technical schools (such as the Indian Institutes of Technology), colleges, and universities. The educational ladder shown below is correct in outline but is not to be relied upon to make particular conclusions.

  Age Degree/Class Subjects
Creche 1-2 - -
Pre KG 3 Pre KG/ Nursery Games, Rhymes
Kindergarten 4 LKG Alphabets, Rhymes, Games
5 UKG -do-
Primary School 6 1 2 languages, Maths, Science, Social Studies
7 2  
8 3  
9 4  
10 5  
High School 11 6 3 languages, Maths div. into Arithmetic and Algebra (I) and Geometry (II); Science div. into Physics, Chemistry and Biology; Social Studies div. into History & Civics and Geography
12 7  
13 8  
14 9 Choice between 2nd and 3rd languages
15 10  
Higher Secondary School 16 11 or PUC  
17 12 or PUC  
College 18-20 UG (Arts or Science) (3 year course)  
18-21 UG (Engineering) (4-year course)  
21-22 PG (Arts and science) (2-year course)  
22-23 PG (Engineering) (2-year course)  
Variants...

In India, the main types of schools are those controlled by:

History

India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth, and was dedicated to the highest ideals of all-round human development: physical, mental and spiritual. Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher's house or a monastery. Education was free, but students from well-to-do families payed Gurudakshina, a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, Medicine and Astrology (Surprisingly, ancient Indians seem to have not been interested in History). The first millenium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshila, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. Nalanda, being the biggest centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed upto 10,000 students at it's peak. British records (http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/t_es/t_es_goyal_education.htm) show that education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The current system of education, with it's western style and content, was introduced & funded by the British in the 20th century, following recommendations by Macaulay. Traditional structures were not recognized by the British govt and have been on the decline since. Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during the British rule.

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