From Academic Kids

For other uses, see Parma (disambiguation).

Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it.



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Piazza della Pace with the Farnese familys Palazzo della Pilotta

The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and "Parmeal" "Parmni" and "Parmnial" are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is more a matter of choice.

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The Governors Palace on the Piazza Garibaldi

Parma, like most northern Italian cities, was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire but locally ruled by its bishops until the commune gained strength in the early Middle Ages. It fell under the control of Milan in 1346, was ceded to the Holy See in 1511. The Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy for his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendents ruled in Parma from 1545 to 1731, when Antonio Farnese (1679-1731), last male of the Farnese line, died.

The combined Duchy of Parma and Piacenza was given to the House of Bourbon in a diplomatic shuffle of the European dynastic politics that were played out in Italy. It remained separate until the unification of Italy in 1860.


Parma hosts the Teatro Regio (, a famous opera theatre.

Stendhal set much of his masterpiece (The Charterhouse of Parma) in the city, even though there was no "Charterhouse" in real life.

The town is also famous for its cheese "Parmigiano Reggiano" (which pride it shares with Reggio Emilia), for its Parma ham, and now for its international commercial brand Parmalat.

Parma A.C. play in the city's Ennio Tardini stadium.

Parma is home to two rugby union teams Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby.

Famous people from Parma

External link

fr:Parme it:Parma nl:Parma ja:パルマ pl:Parma pt:Parma ro:Parma fi:Parma sv:Parma


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